Come February in Wisconsin, almost everything will be covered in ice and snow. In little shanties on frozen Lake Winnebago, a 30-by-13-mile lake in the eastern part of the state, fishers will keep watch over rectangular holes cut into the ice with a chainsaw. When they spot a fin passing below, they’ll jab their spears down deep. The lucky ones will earn themselves a lake sturgeon, a species that has prowled the earth’s waters for more than 150 million years.
Lake Winnebago is one of only two locations in the world where people can spearfish lake sturgeon. These armored fish, also distinguished by whiskerlike barbels growing from their chins, can live as long as a century, weigh as much as 200 pounds, and grow more than seven feet long. Every year, people gather on the lake for a 16-day fishing event. Just 500 licenses exist, a number that keeps overfishing in check while allowing nearly 1,000 sturgeon to be taken for their caviar (for those lucky enough to catch a female) and meat (delicious when smoked).
The sturgeon spearing event will mark its 80th season this year. And with the fish listed as threatened in 19 of the 20 states where it’s found, Wisconsin wildlife officials consider the event one of a number of tactics that help educate people about the fish.